International Shipping Terminologies - T

T.&E. (Transportation and Exportation): Customs form used to control cargo movement from port of entry to port of exit, meaning that the cargo is moving from one country, through the United States, to another country.

Tail:
The rear of a container or trailer-opposite the front or nose.

Tare Weight:
The weight of packing material, or in railcar or container shipments, the weight of the empty railcar or empty container.

Tariff:
A document issued by a carrier setting forth applicable rules, rates, and charges for the movement of goods. It sets up a contract of carriage between the shipper, consignee, and carrier. In international trade applications, the term also refers to a tax on imports.

Telex:
Used for messages transmitted via Western Union, ITT and RCA to outside companies.

Temperature Recorder:
A device to record temperature in a container while cargo is en route.

Tender:
The offer of goods for transportation or the offer to place cars or containers for loading or unloading.

Tenor:
Time and date for payment of a draft.

Terminal:
An assigned area in which containers are prepared for loading into a vessel, train, truck or airplane or are stacked immediately after discharge from a vessel, train, truck or airplane.

Terms of Sale:
The point at which sellers have fulfilled their obligations so the goods in a legal sense could be said to have been delivered to the buyer. They are shorthand expressions that set out the rights and obligations of each party when it comes to transporting the goods. The following are the thirteen terms of sale in international trade as reflected in the International Chamber of Commerce Terms of Trade (INCOTERMS), effective July, 1990:
- EXW (Ex Works): The seller fulfills the obligation to deliver when the goods are made available at the seller's premises (works, factory, warehouse, etc.) to the buyer. In particular, the seller is not responsible for loading the goods in the vehicle provided by the buyer or for clearing the goods for export, unless otherwise agreed. The buyer bears all costs and risks involved in the taking the goods from the seller's premises to desired destination. This term thus represents the minimum obligation for the seller.

- FCA (Free Carrier): The seller delivers goods, cleared for export, to a carrier named by the buyer at a named place. If no designated point is indicated by the buyer, the seller may choose, within the place or range stipulated, where the carrier may include any party that undertakes to provide transportation services.

- FAS (Free Alongside Ship):
The seller delivers the goods alongside the vessel on the quay or in lighters at the named port of shipment. The buyer bears all risks of loss or damage from that moment, contracts and pays for carriage, and clears the goods for export.

- FOB (Free On Board-International Use):
The seller's responsibility ends when the goods pass over the ship's rail at the named port of shipment. The buyer bears all costs and risks of loss or damage from that moment, contracts and pays for carriage, and clears the goods for export.

- CFR (Cost and Freight):
The seller prepays the cost of carriage to the named port of destination, and clears the goods for export. Risk of cargo loss or damage transfers to the buyer when the goods pass the ship's rail at the port of shipment.

- CIF (Cost, Insurance, and Freight):
The seller has the same obligations as under the CFR but also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer's risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium.

- CPT(Carriage Paid To):
The seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered to the carrier, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been delivered into the custody of the carrier. If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed upon destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier.

- CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To):
The seller has the same obligations as under CPT, but also must contract and pay for insurance against the buyer's loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under
the CIP term, the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum coverage.

- DAF (Delivered At Frontier):
The seller fulfills the obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available, cleared for export, at the named point, and placed at the frontier, but before the customs border of the adjoining country.

- DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid):
The seller fulfills the obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation.The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto (excluding duties, taxes and other official charges payable upon importation) as well as the costs and risks of carrying out customs formalities. The buyer has to pay any additional costs and to bear any risks caused by failure to clear the goods for in time.

- DDP (Delivered Duty Paid): The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the names place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the risks and costs, including duties, taxes and other charges of delivering the goods thereto, clear for importation. While the EXW term represents the minimum obligation for the seller, DDP represents the maximum.

- DES (Delivered Ex Ship):
The seller fulfills the obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available to the buyer onboard the ship, uncleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller bears all costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port of destination.

- DEQ (Delivered Ex Quay (Duty Paid)):
The DDU term has been fulfilled when the goods have been available to the buyer on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination, cleared for importation. Attaching the term "Duty Paid" indicates that the seller bears all risks and costs of delivery to the named point, including duties and other import charges. Attaching the term "Duty Unpaid" indicates that the buyer must clear the goods for import and pay duties.
TEU: Twenty-foot equivalent unit container. Used to measure a vessel's capacity.

Through Rate:
The total rate from the port of origin to final destination.

Throughput Charge:
The charge for moving a container through a container yard off or onto a ship.

Time Charter:
A contract for leasing between ship owners and the lessee. It would state the duration of the lease in years or voyages.

Time Draft:
A draft that matures either a certain number of days after acceptance or a certain number of days after the date of the draft.

TIR (Transport Internationaux par la Route):
Road transport operating agreement among European governments and the United States for the international movement of cargo by road. Display of the TIR carnet allows sealed containerloads to cross national frontiers without inspection.

TL:
Abbreviation for Trailer Load.

TOFC (Trailer on Flat Car):
The movement of a highway trailer on a railroad flatcar. Also known as piggyback.

Ton-Mile:
Unit used in comparing freight earnings or expenses. The amount earned from the cost of hauling a ton of freight one mile. The movement of a ton of freight one mile.

Tonnage:
Generally refers to freight handled.

Top-Air Delivery:
A type of air circulation in a container. Air is drawn from the bottom of the container, filtered through the evaporator for cooling and then forced through the ducted passages along the top of the container. This type of airflow requires a special loading pattern.

Towage:
The charge made for towing a vessel.

Tractor:
Unit of highway motive power used to pull one or more trailers/containers.

Trade Acceptance:
A time or date draft that has been accepted by the buyer (the drawee) for payment at maturity.

Traffic:
Person or property carried by transport lines.

Trailer:
The truck unit into which freight is loaded as in tractor-trailer combination.

Tramp Line:
An ocean carrier company operating tramp steamers not on regular runs or schedules.

Transport:
To move traffic from one place to another.

Transportation:
The movement of traffic from one place to another.

Transmittal letter:
A letter from the shipper to its agent that lists the particulars of a shipment, the documents being transmitted, and instructions for the disposition of those documents.

Transshipment:
Shipment of merchandise to the point of destination in another country on more than one vessel or vehicle. The liability may pass from one carrier to the next, or it may be covered by "through bills of lading" issued by the first carrier. Sometimes referred to as relay.

Transshipment Port:
Place where cargo is transferred to another carrier.

Turnaround:
In water transportation, the time it takes between the arrival of a vessel and its departure.

Twist Locks:
A set of four twistable bayonet-type shear keys used as part of a spreader to pick-up a container or as part of a chassis to secure the containers.

Two-Way Pallet:
A pallet so designed that the forks of a fork lift truck can be inserted from two sides only.

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